Drawings depicting three-dimensional views differ greatly from orthographic drawings in that they offer a more natural view of space. It is important to note that these three-dimensional views (also known as pictorial drawings) are useful at every phase of the design process.
 Pictorial drawings work well in the various phases of the design process as a method of examining and refining ideas, and should not be reserved merely as a means of final project presentation. The purpose of this chapter is to present a wide range of three-dimensional drawing methods and procedures. These methods range from freehand sketches to measured, hard-lined perspective illustrations. Students of design should seek a method or methods that work well for them as individuals. 
The goal, then, is to find drawing methods that are useful as tools throughout the design process and to realize that pictorial drawing is a way of seeing that is useful for all designers. Unlike orthographic projections, three-dimensional views allow for a single depiction of a large portion of an interior space. This type of drawing can also help clients to clearly understand the design of a project. In addition,
three-dimensional views of a space allow the designer to see and explore the entire volume of space and make design decisions accordingly. 
Many designers create these drawings by hand, but computers are increasingly used for the generation of perspective drawings. Some designers state that they can explore the total volume of a space in the preliminary design phases only when drawing it in perspective by hand. Many designers have mentioned that they use a combination of hand sketching and computer-generated perspective imagery. Increasingly design graduates are expected to have the ability to create three-dimensional views both by hand and with the use of computers. 
This is because understanding the basics of creating hand-drawn three-dimensional views allows a designer to work more effectively by computer and also grants the ability to create quick sketches in client meetings (and elsewhere). Some designers use computer-generated three-dimensional imagery from the inception of a project and create no hand drawings at any point in the design process. Software used by those working this way includes AshlarVellum® and Form•Z® from Auto*des*sys*. Others generate two-dimensional design drawings on AutoCAD (various releases) and then use

these to generate three-dimensional views on AutoCAD. This chapter provides step-by-step instructions on a range of hand-drawn perspective methods. However, given the range of software available, there are no explicit directions on creating computer-generated perspective drawings because each software product has very distinct properties.
 It is also worth noting that hand-drawing works effectively early in the schematic design phase as a means of generating many varied ideas about a given space. Using the quick sketching techniques covered in this chapter will help a designer generate a wide range of ideas rapidly without first creating plans and elevations. Pictorial drawings are created as line drawings (or wire frames) and used as such in presentations or are rendered upon completion. Some perspective and paraline line drawings work very well in communicating a design to an audience without the addition of value or color rendering. This is especially true if additional descriptive items such as materials and finishes samples are also used in the presentation. Therefore, it is worthwhile to attempt to generate descriptive line drawings that communicate a design successfully and to see rendering as a secondary step in the drawing process. 
The tools and materials used in pictorial drawings are similar to those used in orthographic projection drawings and the other forms of graphic communication mentioned previously. An abundance of tracing paper is probably the most important material in the production of perspective drawings. The transparency and low cost of tracing paper make it highly useful as a visualization tool. As soon as a drawing becomes confusing to sort out, a new sheet of tracing paper can be overlaid. When tracing paper is used as an overlay, a variety of colored pencils can be used as a visual aid in the construction of three-dimensional drawings. Both pencils and pens can work well in the construction of three-dimensional views when working by hand. Although the choice of im
plements is highly personal, quick-sketching methods are best accomplished with marking pens that provide quick visual impact. Marking pens also eliminate the use of erasers, which actually helps with visualization. This approach is tough at first but worth the effort. Hand-drawn refined measured paraline and perspective drawings are most often constructed in pencil on tracing paper, with many layers of paper and a variety of colored pencils used. 
These drawings often require the use of drafting tools but are also drawn freehand by some individuals. The final hard-lined measured paraline or perspective line drawing is often done on high-quality vellum or drafting film with drafting pencils or ink pens. This allows for the line drawing to be reproduced by a variety of reprographic methods on a variety of papers. Once reproduced, the drawing may be incorporated into a presentation with or without rendering. Information on rendering and reprographics is available in Chapter 5.


 are quick, accurate, and useful in the communication of interior form. The method of construction of these drawings is based on the relationship of three principal axes (x, y, and z). Although there are several types of paraline drawing, all share common characteristics: (1) paraline drawings have parallel lines drawn as parallel, and lines do not converge to vanishing points; (2) vertical lines are drawn as true verticals in paraline drawings; and (3) paraline drawings are drawn using some method of proportional scale.

One type of paraline drawing commonly used in the communication of interior environments is known as a PLAN OBLIQUE. Figure 3-1 provides a quick reference of plan oblique construction. Plan obliques can be constructed quickly because they are drawn by projecting directly off the floor plan. Drawing a plan

No comments