Many designers find it useful to obtain early programming data and incorporate it into graphic worksheets. Using a flip-chart pad, brown kraft paper, or other heavy paper, the programmers can create large, easy-to-read graphic documents. These sheets are created so that they may be understood easily by the client and can therefore be approved or commented on. Often the eventual project designers find these sheets useful as a means of project documentation. The book Problem Seeking (Peña, Parshall, and Kelly, 1987) provides an additional tech
nique for the graphic recording of information generated in the early stages of programming, using a device known as analysis cards.
Analysis cards allow for easy comprehension, discussion, clarification, and feedback. The cards are drawn from interview notes and early programming data. Based on the notion that visual information is more easily comprehended than verbal, the cards contain simple graphic imagery with few words and concise messages. The cards are most successful if they are large enough for use in a wall display or presentation and if they are reduced to very simple but specific information. Figure 2-3 illustrates program analysis graphics for the sample project. See Figure C-6 for a color version of a programming analysis graphic.


Matrices are extremely useful tools in programming, incorporating a wealth of information into an easily comprehended visual tool. An adjacency matrix is commonly used as a means of visually documenting spatial proximity, identifying related activities and services, and establishing priorities. Adjacency matrices vary in complexity in relation to project requirements. Large-scale, complex projects often require highly detailed adjacency matrices. Figures 2-4 and 2-5 illustrate two types of adjacency matrix.

A criteria matrix can distill project issues such as needs for privacy, natural light, and security into a concise, consistent format. Large-scale, complex design projects may require numerous detailed, complex matrices, whereas smaller, less complex projects require more simplified matrices. Criteria matrices are used in residential design projects and in the programming of public spaces. Smaller projects allow for criteria matrices to be combined with adjacency matrices. Figure 2-6 illustrates a criteria matrix that includes adjacency information. Special types of matrix are used by designers on particular projects.
Programming graphics, such as project worksheets, analysis cards, and a variety of matrices, are widely used in interior design practice. These are presented to the client or end user for comment, clarification, and approval. Many of these graphics are refined, corrected, and improved upon during the programming process and are eventually included in the final programming report.


 With the programming phase completed, designers may begin the work of synthesis. Another way of stating this is that with the problem clearly stated, problem solving can begin. The creation of relationship diagrams is often a first step in the schematic design of a project. Relationship diagrams serve a variety of functions that allow the designers to digest and internalize the programming information. Relationship diagrams also allow the designer to begin to use graphics to come to terms with the physical qualities of the project.

One type of relationship diagram explores the relationship of functional areas to one another and uses information completed on the criteria and adjacency matrices. This type of one-step diagram can be adequate for smaller commercial and residential projects. Larger
scale, complex projects often require a series of relationship diagrams. Diagrams of this type do not generally relate to architectural or site parameters and are not drawn to scale. Most specialized or complex projects require additional diagrams that explore issues such as personal interaction, flexibility, and privacy requirements.


As relationship diagrams begin to incorporate and account for necessary requirements and adjacencies, they can become refined into what are generally referred to as BUBBLE DIAGRAMS. Bubble diagrams take the project one step further in the schematic design process. Often bubble diagrams relate approximately to the actual architectural parameters (the building space) in rough scale. In addition, they often incorporate elements identified in criteria and adjacency matrices through the use of graphic devices keyed to a legend. Figures 2-7a–2-7e are a sequence of bubble diagrams for the
sample project. See Figure C-7 for a color version of a bubble diagram. It is important to note that a primary purpose of these early schematic diagrams is to generate a number of options. Brainstorming many ideas is highly advisable. Designers with years of experience use brainstorming techniques, as should students of design. Successful design requires sparks of creativity in every phase, and these sparks are fostered by nurturing idea generation. Rarely does the first try (or even the first several) create a masterpiece or a workable solution. It is often the combination of several diverse schemes that eventually generates a good solution

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